• Classroom Learning Materials

14th Amendment

The 14th Amendment wrote the Declaration of Independence’s promise of freedom and equality into the Constitution. It transformed the Constitution forever. And it’s at the heart of what many scholars refer to as America’s “Second Founding.” Even so, the 14th Amendment is the focus of many of the most important constitutional debates (and Supreme Court cases) today. In many ways, the history of the modern Supreme Court is really a history of modern-day battles over the 14th Amendment’s meaning. Nearly every constitutional case that you care about today turns on the text that we just read.

Upcoming Live Class: 
The 14th Amendment and Incorporation
Week of February 21


Big Questions

What is the 14th Amendment, and what does it say?

What core principles does it add to the Constitution?

How did the 14th Amendment transform the Constitution?

How does the 14th Amendment promote equality?

How does the 14th Amendment protect freedom?

What are some areas of ongoing constitutional debate?

Video: The 14th Amendment and Incorporation - Advanced Class
Video: The 14th Amendment and Incorporation - Introductory Class
Video: The 14th Amendment and Incorporation with Christopher R. Riano
Video: Eric Foner on the creation and contents of the 14th Amendment.
Video: Overview Lesson:
The 14th Amendment
Video: The Black Codes & The South Carolina State Convention: A Theatrical Performance

Classroom Materials

14th Amendment -
Briefing Document

Download via Google Docs





Download via Google Docs
Advanced Version


Introductory Version


Explore 14th Amendment Questions

More For The Classroom

Scholar Exchanges

Part lecture and part lively conversation, these online classes allow students, teachers, and parents can join in discussions with scholars on core Constitutional topics.

Professional Development

Join other educators for a variety of programs that enhance your teaching of the Constitution.

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