16th Amendment

Income Tax

Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913. The 16th Amendment changed a portion of Article I, Section 9

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Read Interpretations of the 16th Amendment

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The Drafting Table

Explore key historical documents that inspired the Framers of the Constitution and each amendment during the drafting process, the early drafts and major proposals behind each provision, and discover how the drafters deliberated, agreed and disagreed, on the path to compromise and the final text.

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Teach the Constitution in your classroom with nonpartisan resources including videos, lesson plans, podcasts, and more. Check out our classroom resources organized by each article or amendment, and by key constitutional questions.

Media Library: 16th Amendment

Live At America's Town Hall Podcast

Great Justices: Founders, Dissenters, and Prophets

Jun 15

Town Hall Video

The Great Justices: Founders, Dissenters, and Prophets

Authors and experts join a Town Hall for a discussion on what made Marshall, Harlan, and other influential Supreme Court justices.

Jun 10

Blog Post

Battle for the Constitution: Week of September 27th, 2021 Roundup

Here is a round-up of the latest from the Battle for the Constitution: a special project on the constitutional debates in…

Oct 1

Educational Video

Scholar Exchange: Amendment Review: 27 Amendments in 27 Minutes (All In Level)

In this fast-paced and fun session, President and CEO Jeffrey Rosen and Chief Learning Officer Kerry Sautner review all of the 27…

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