Ninth Amendment

Non-Enumerated Rights Retained by People

Passed by Congress September 25, 1789. Ratified December 15, 1791. The first 10 amendments form the Bill of Rights

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Read Interpretations of the Ninth Amendment

More about Ninth Amendment

The Drafting Table

Coming soon for this provision! Until then, you can use Writing Rights to explore key historical documents, early drafts and major proposals behind each provision, and discover how the drafters deliberated, agreed and disagreed, on the path to compromise and the final text.

In the Classroom

Teach the Constitution in your classroom with nonpartisan resources including videos, lesson plans, podcasts, and more. Check out our classroom resources organized by each article or amendment, and by key constitutional questions.

Media Library: Ninth Amendment

Town Hall Video

The Constitutional Legacy of the Warren Court: 50 Years Later

Geoffrey Stone and David Strauss discuss their book "Democracy and Equality" during the 50th anniversary.

Apr 6

Blog Post

On this day, the Roe v. Wade decision

On January 22, 1973, the Supreme Court handed down a decision that continues to divide the nation to this day.

Jan 22

Educational Video

SCHOLAR EXCHANGE: America’s Founding Documents

The Advanced Placement (AP) exam has been rewritten for 2020 and covers three units with two free-response questions (FRQs). This…

May 2

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