Ninth Amendment

Non-Enumerated Rights Retained by People

Passed by Congress September 25, 1789. Ratified December 15, 1791. The first 10 amendments form the Bill of Rights

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Read Interpretations of the Ninth Amendment

More about Ninth Amendment

The Drafting Table

Coming soon for this provision! Until then, you can use Writing Rights to explore key historical documents, early drafts and major proposals behind each provision, and discover how the drafters deliberated, agreed and disagreed, on the path to compromise and the final text.

In the Classroom

Teach the Constitution in your classroom with nonpartisan resources including videos, lesson plans, podcasts, and more. Check out our classroom resources organized by each article or amendment, and by key constitutional questions.

Media Library: Ninth Amendment

Town Hall Video

Federalism and States Rights in 2021 and Beyond

Attorney General Phil Weiser of Colorado and Attorney General Mark Brnovich of Arizona discuss the challenges of federalism and…

Jan 26

Blog Post

Current constitutional issues related to vaccine mandates

The Covid-19 delta variant’s spread may force federal and state authorities to re-examine public safety policies related to…

Aug 6

Educational Video

The Bill of Rights Featuring Akhil Amar

In this Fun Friday Session, Akhil Reed Amar, Sterling Professor of Law and Political Science at Yale University, joins National…

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