National Constitution CenterCenturies of Citizenship: A Constitutional Timeline Exhibit
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1907-1930: We are a diverse nation, confronting our differences

Between the 1880 and 1920, America experienced a sea of social change. More than 20 million immigrants flocked to these shores, infusing America with new vitality and raising new questions about the constitutional rights of labor and minority groups. At the time of the First World War, Congress and the Supreme Court moved to suppress dissent. Efforts to control vice and morality boomed, and in 1919 the Constitution was amended to outlaw alcohol, an experiment that failed. During this era of turmoil, reform and war, women continued the struggle to improve their condition and secure the right to vote. Finally, in 1920, they succeeded.

   
December 31, 1907
Immigrants flock to our shores, seeking freedom and stirring fears
  December 31, 1907
On this day Record-breaking 1,285,000 immigrants admitted to U.S. over past year
  January 27, 1908
On this day In Adair v. U.S., federal law prohibiting “yellow dog” contracts barring workers from joining labor unions is invalidated
February 24, 1908
Social reformers win a victory in Muller v. Oregon
  February 12, 1909
On this day National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded
  March 4, 1909
On this day William H. Taft inaugurated as president
  May 15, 1911
On this day Supreme Court orders the breakup of Standard Oil holding company in Standard Oil of New Jersey v. U.S.
  November 20, 1911
On this day Andrew Carnegie donates $125 million to establish Carnegie Foundation
  August 7, 1912
On this day Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party nominates Theodore Roosevelt for president
October 14, 1912
Pushing reforms for the “general welfare,” TR makes another run for president
February 3, 1913
States ratify Sixteenth Amendment, allowing for federal income tax
  March 4, 1913
On this day Woodrow Wilson inaugurated as president
April 8, 1913
A new amendment gives us the power to elect senators directly
April 8, 1913
States ratify Seventeenth Amendment, allowing for the direct election of senators
  July 10, 1913
On this day B’nai B’rith establishes Anti-Defamation League to combat anti-Semitism
  December 23, 1913
On this day Congress creates Federal Reserve Board to regulate banking
  1914
On this day Margaret Sanger indicted for advertising birth-control information and devices
  June 1, 1916
On this day Louis Brandeis confirmed as Supreme Court justice
November 9, 1916
Jeannette Rankin becomes first woman elected to Congress
  April 6, 1917
On this day U.S. enters World War I
  June 15, 1917
On this day Congress passes Espionage Act
October 1, 1917
Roger Baldwin founds the National Civil Liberties Bureau, precursor to American Civil Liberties Union
  May 16, 1918
On this day Congress passes Sedition Act to suppress wartime dissent
  June 3, 1918
On this day Supreme Court, in Hammer v. Dagenhart, declares federal Child Labor Act unconstitutional invasion of states’ rights
August 19, 1918
An immigrant songwriter has America singing
1919
Should America restrict immigration?
January 1, 1919
Map: States grant women the right to vote
January 16, 1919
States ratify Eighteenth Amendment, prohibiting the sale, manufacture and transportation of liquor
January 16, 1919
No more liquor for America’s drinkers
  March 3, 1919
On this day Supreme Court, in Schenck v. U.S., sustains convictions of war protesters, adopting “clear and present danger” test
November 10, 1919
The Court grapples with issues of free speech in a democratic society
  December 21, 1919
On this day Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer launches Palmer raids against radical organizations; “Red Scare” continues into 1920
1920
Map: Immigration to the United States 1880-1920
May 31, 1920
Thousands rounded up in raids provoked by the “Red Scare”
August 18, 1920
States ratify Nineteenth Amendment, granting women suffrage throughout America
August 18, 1920
Women win the right to vote!
  March 4, 1921
On this day Warren G. Harding inaugurated as president
  April 9, 1923
On this day Supreme Court rules minimum wage laws for women unconstitutional in Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
  August 2, 1923
On this day Following Harding’s death, Calvin Coolidge becomes president
December 10, 1923
The Equal Rights Amendment, written by Alice Paul, is introduced in Congress
May 26, 1924
We welcome some immigrants, but shut the door on most
  June 8, 1925
On this day Supreme Court applies First Amendment to states in Gitlow v. New York
July 21, 1925
The controversial “monkey trial” raises issues that won’t go away
  May 21, 1927
On this day Charles Lindbergh completes first nonstop solo airplane flight across the Atlantic
  June 29, 1928
On this day Democrats nominate Catholic New York governor Al Smith for president on anti-Prohibition platform
  November 18, 1928
On this day Walt Disney Productions introduces Mickey Mouse
  March 4, 1929
On this day Herbert Hoover inaugurated as president

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